Publications/Papers

Academic publications

Papers in submission and in draft, as of Feb. 2016

2017

Pérdida de coeficiente intelectual en hijos de alfareros mexicanos” (Intelligence quotient loss in Mexican pottery artisan’s children), (pdf) Revistamedica, May, 2017

2016

Risk factors for children’s blood lead levels in metal mining and smelting communities in Armenia: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Public Health, Sept. 7, 2016. Ruzanna Grigoryan, Varduhi Petrosyan, Dzovinar Melkom Melkomian, Vahe Khachadourian, Andrew McCartor and Byron Crape.

Burden Of Disease Resulting From Lead Exposure At Toxic Waste Sites In Argentina, Mexico And Uruguay ” Environmental Health, June 2016. Jack Caravanos, Jonathan Carrelli, Russell Dowling, Brian Pavilonis, Bret Ericson and Richard Fuller.  (Infographic)

  • Though lead contaminated waste sites have been widely researched in many high-income countries, their prevalence and associated health outcomes have not been well documented in low- and middle-income countries.

Pollution, Health And Development: The Need For A New Paradigm,” Reviews in Environmental Health, March 2016, Philip J. Landrigan/Richard Fuller

“Protecting communities by remediating polluted sites worldwide,” (pdf) ICE (Institute of Civil Engineers), (Jan. 11, 2016). David Hanrahan MSc, MICE; Bret Ericson MSc; Jack Caravanos DrPH.

The Prevalence Of Toxic Hotspots In Former Soviet Countries,” Environmental Pollution (Vol. 211, April 2016). Petr Sharova, Russell Dowling, Megi Gogishvili, Barbara Jones, Jack Caravanos, Andrew McCartor, Zachary Kashdan, Richard Fuller.

  • Pollution in eight former Soviet countries poses a health risk to 6.2 million residents.
    The most commonly found key pollutants are pesticides, lead, arsenic, and cadmium.
    The majority of sites can be traced to Soviet legacy pollution.

An Assessment of the Potential Presence of Carcinogenic Materials at Non-Military Industrial Sites In Vieques, Puerto Rico. By Jack Caravanos, DrPH, CIH Professor, Environmental Health City University of New York, School of Public Health

2015  

Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land And Socio Demographics In Ghana,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Oct 2015). Russell Dowling, MPH, Bret Ericson, MSc, Jack Caravanos, DrPH, CIH, Patrick Grigsby, BBA, and Yaw Amoyaw-Osei, MSc.

Global Health and Environmental PollutionInternational Journal of Public Health (2015). PDF. Philip J. Landrigan , Richard Fuller

  • This was part of the special issue “Driving the Best Science to Meet Global Health Challenges” edited on the occasion of the 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health 2015.

Children’s Health in Latin America: The Influence of Environmental Exposures.” Environmental health perspectives (2015). Laborde, Amalia, et al.

  • Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children’s health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change.

Exposición a plomo: una tarea pendiente en México.” Salud Pública de México 2 (2015): 115-116.  Téllez-Rojo, Martha and Caravanos, Jack.

  • This article is a letter to the editor of the Journal of Public Health of Mexico that cites data from the 2014 publication “Blood Lead Levels in Mexico and Pediatric Burden of Disease Implications” in order to raise awareness of the issue of lead exposure and child health in Mexico.

2014

Environmental Pollution: An Enormous and Invisible Burden on Health Systems in Low- and Middle-income Countries.” World Hospitals and Health Services4 (2014): 35-40. Landrigan, Philip J., and Richard Fuller.

  • We find that diseases caused by pollution increase health care costs, especially for high-cost NCDs. They impose an unnecessary load on health care delivery systems and undermine the development of poor countries by reducing the health, intelligence and economic productivity of entire generations. Pollution is highly preventable and pollution prevention is highly cost-effective.

The Pediatric Burden of Disease from Lead Exposure at Toxic Waste Sites in Low and Middle Income Countries.” Environmental Research (July 2014). Chatham-Stephens, K., Caravanos, J., Ericson, B., Landrigan, P., & Fuller, R.

  • This paper found that elevated soil and water lead levels at 200 toxic waste sites are affecting nearly 800,000 children under age 4, and predicted blood lead levels that lower intelligence levels, likely resulting in limited individual and country development.

A Simplified Risk-Ranking System for Prioritizing Toxic Pollution Sites in Low-and Middle-Income Countries.” Annals Of Global  Health 4 (2014): 278-285.  Caravanos, Jack, et al.

  • The aim of this study was to describe the simple but effective approach taken by Blacksmith Institute’s Toxic Sites Identification Program to quantify and rank toxic exposures in low- and middle-income countries.

Blood Lead Levels in Mexico and Pediatric Burden of Disease Implications.” Annals Of Global Health 4 (2014): 269-277.  Caravanos, Jack, et al.

  • This article provides an extensive historical review and analysis of available blood lead levels in Mexican populations. Reviewing all relevant studies, the geometric means of Mexican BLLs in urban and rural areas were found to be 8.85 and 22.24 ug/dL, respectively. Since the phase-out of leaded gasoline, the mean in urban areas was found to be 5.36 ug/dL and the average in rural areas is expected to be much higher.

Niveles de Plomo en Sangre en México y su Implicación para la Carga Pediátrica de la Enfermedad.” Annals Of Global Health 4 (2014).Caravanos, Jack, et al.

  • Este artículo proporciona una extensa revisión histórica y análisis de los niveles de plomo de sangre disponibles en poblaciones mexicanas. Una media geométrica calculada entonces fue utilizada para evaluar el efecto del plomo sobre la carga de morbilidad pediátrica.

A Comparison of Burden of Disease from Toxic Waste Sites with other Recognized Public Health Threats in India, Indonesia and the Philippines.” Journal of Health Pollution7 (2014): 2-13. Caravanos, Jack, et al.

  • We compared the burden of disease from toxic waste sites expressed in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) with the same measurement for other threats in India, Indonesia and the Philippines. We used Blacksmith Institute for a Pure Earth’s DALY estimates for chemical exposure at 373 toxic waste sites in the 3 countries and World Health Organization (WHO) DALY estimates for different health conditions in the same countries.

Environmental Pollution and Occupational Health in a Changing World.” Annals Of Global Health 4 (2014). Landrigan, Philip and Fuller, Richard.

  • Environmental pollution is the main cause of disease and death in the developing world. In 2012, exposures to polluted soil, water, and air resulted in an estimated 8.4 million deaths worldwide. By comparison, HIV/AIDS is responsible for 1.5 million deaths annually and malaria and tuberculosis less than 1 million each. More than 1 in 7 deaths globally are the result of environmental pollution.

Notes from the Field: Severe Environmental Contamination and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children—Zambia, 2014.” Morbidity and mortality weekly report 63.44 (2014): 1013-1013. Caravanos, Jack, Richard Fuller, and Stephan Robinson.

  • This article reviews the extent of lead exposure and contamination in Kabwe, Zambia by analyzing blood lead levels of local children. The researchers used capillary blood from children’s fingers. The mean blood lead level (BLL) was 48.3 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) of whole blood. The lowest BLL measured was 13.6 µg/dL. The upper BLL of detection by the testing system is 65.0 µg/dL; 26.5% of readings exceeded that limit. The upper value for the CDC reference range for BLLs in children is 5 µg/dL.

“Hazardous Waste and Toxic Hotspots.” Textbook of Children’s Environmental Health. New York: Oxford, 2014. 254-61. Fuller, Richard.

2013

“Approaches to systematic assessment of environmental exposures posed at hazardous waste sites in the developing world: the Toxic Sites Identification Program. Environmental monitoring and assessment,” 185(2), 1755-1766. (2013). Ericson, B., Caravanos, J., Chatham-Stephens, K., Landrigan, P., & Fuller, R.

  • This paper discussed the TSIP approach and was instrumental in lending credibility to the TSIP project and its data.

Burden of Disease from Toxic Waste Sites in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in 2010.”  Environmental Health Perspectives. (2013)Chatham-Stephens, K., Caravanos, J., Ericson, B., Sunga-Amparo J, Susilorini B, Sharma P, Landrigan, P., & Fuller, R.

  • This article found that the burden of disease, measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) at 373 toxic sites assessed in India, Philippines, and Indonesia was similar to that of malaria, or outdoor air pollution.

How to Mitigate Mercury Pollution in Tanzania Journal of Environmental Protection, May 2013.

2012

“The burden of disease from pediatric lead exposure at hazardous waste sites in 7 Asian countries.” Environmental Research. (2012). Caravanos, J., Chatham-Stephens, K., Ericson, B., Landrigan, P. J., & Fuller, R.

  • This paper published data on pediatric lead exposures in three south Asian countries, using TSIP data.

Outbreak of Fatal Childhood Lead Poisoning Related to Artisanal Gold Mining in Northwestern Nigeria, 2010, Environmental Health Perspectives, April 2012, pdf

Reports

“Regulatory Best Practices for Remediation of Legacy Toxic Contamination – A Roadmap for Latin America. (Spanish version) Cyrus R. Vance Center for International Justice.

  • The report highlights policies and practices in Latin America that work to facilitate the clean up of toxic pollution, and offers six governing principles as models. It is available in English and Spanish.

Annual Report Series on the World’s Worst Polluted Places, released by Blacksmith Institute/Pure Earth and Green Cross Switzerland.  Access all reports at www.worstpolluted.org

  • 2015 – The New Top Six Toxic Threats: A Priority List for Remediation
  • 2014 – Top Ten Countries Turning The Corner On Toxic Pollution
  • 2013 –  The World’s Top 10 Toxic Threats: Cleanup, Progress and Ongoing Challenges
  • 2012 – The World’s Top 10 Toxic Pollution Problems by Global Burden of Disease
  • 2011- The World’s Top Ten Sources of Pollution.
  • 2010 – Top Six Toxic Threats
  • 2009 – 12 Cases Of Cleanup and Success
  • 2008 – The World’s Worst Pollution Problems
  • 2007 – Top Ten Most Polluted Places

GAHP papers

Pure Earth/Blacksmith Institute summary for governments, NGOs and agencies (two-pages)

Pure Earth/Blacksmith Institute summary for for corporations (two-pages)

Borax:  Summary of health risks associated with using borax in artisanal and small-scale gold mining2013

Artisanal Gold Mining:  A Dangerous Pollution Problem

Environmental Contaminants and the Immune System (summary by Bruce D. Forrest, MD MBA)

The Effects of Toxic Pollution in the Developing World (1-page summary)

Economic Benefit of Pollution Clean-up (2-page summary), Jan. 2010

The Effects of Lead on Maternal and Child Health, 2009

Cost Effectiveness of Pollution Cleanup in Developing Countries, May 2007

China Country Strategy Document 2011-2014

Blacksmith Health and Pollution Fund Feasibility Study, 2011, Study, Annexes

Guixi Rice Paddy Remediation Pilot Study, Jianxi Province, China, Fall 2012