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Scroll below to find an up to date list of research and resources on lead poisoning and pollution.

Peer-reviewed Research

2023

Rapid Assessment of Mercury Contaminated Sites. Ortega-Ramierz et al. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia. Oct-Dec 2023.

Global health burden and cost of lead exposure in children and adults: A health impact and economic modeling analysis. Larsen et al. The Lancet Planetary Health. September 2023.

Food Safety Policy Enforcement and Associated Actions Reduce Lead Chromate Adulteration in Turmeric Across Bangladesh. Forsyth et al. Environmental Research. September 2023.

The Association Between Lead Exposure and Crime: A Systematic Review. Talayero et al. PLOS Global Public Health. August 2023.

Contaminant Metals as Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Lamas et al. Journal of the American Heart Association. June 2023.

Bovine Lead Exposure from Informal Battery Recycling in India. Ferraro et al. Springer Nature. May 2023.

Childhood Lead Poisoning 1970-2022: Charting Progress and Needed Reforms. Jacobs & Brown. J. Public Health Management Practices. March 2023.

Diminishing Benefits of Urban Living for Children and Adolescents’ Growth and Development. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. Nature. March 2023. 

Association Between Toxic Metals, Vitamin D and Preterm Birth in the Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Study. Fisher et al. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. March 2023.

2022

Unequal Airborne Exposure to Toxic Metals Associated with Race, Ethnicity, and Segregation in the USA. Kodros et al. Nature Communications. November 2022.

Assessing Analytical Methods for the Rapid Detection of Lead Adulteration in the Global Spice Market. Lopez et al. ACS Publications. November 2022.

Health Remedies as a Source of Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic Exposure, New York City, 2010–2019. Hore et al. AJPH. September 2022.

Updated Interim Reference Levels for Dietary Lead to Support FDA’s Closer to Zero Action Plan. Flannery & Middleton. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. August 2022.

Reducing Disease and Death from Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM)- the Urgent Need for Responsible Mining in the Context of Growing Global Demand for Minerals and Metals for Climate Change Mitigation. Landrigan et al. Environmental Health. August 2022.

Pollution and Health: A Progress Update. Fullet et al. The Lancet Planetary Health. June 2022.

Investigating Aluminum Cookpots as a Source of Lead exposure in Afghan Refugee Children Resettled in the United States. Fellows et al. May 2022.

Metal Exposures from Source Materials for Artisanal Aluminum Cookware. Weidenhamer et al. January 2022.

Research Brief on Hg Retention in AMATAF. Román et al. Pure Earth. 2022.

2021

Piloting Risk Mitigation at a Lead Contaminated Site in Bangladesh. Aziz et al. Geological Society of America. October 2021.

Lead and Cadmium as Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Burden of Proof Has Been Met. Lamas et al. JAMA. May 2021.

Blood Lead Levels in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review. Ericson et al. The Lancet Planetary Health. March 2021.

Child Lead Exposure Near Abandoned Lead Acid Battery Recycling Sites in a Residential Community in Bangladesh: Risk Factors and the Impact of Soil Remediation on Blood Lead Levels. Chowdhury et al. Environmental Research. March 2021.

Child Lead Exposure Near Abandoned Lead Acid Battery Recycling Sites in a Residential Community in Bangladesh: Risk Factors and the Impact of Soil Remediation on Blood Lead Levels. Chowdhury et al. Environmental Research. January 2021

Health and Economic Impact of Air Pollution in the States of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Air Pollution Collaborators. Lancet Planetary Health. January 2021.

Association of Blood Lead Levels with Preeclampsia: A Cohort Study in China. Wu et al. Environmental Research. April 2021.

2020

The Toxic Truth: Children’s Exposure to Lead Pollution Undermines a Generation of Future Potential. UNICEF and Pure Earth. 2020.

Consequences of a Mobile Future: Creating an Environmentally Conscious Life Cycle for Lead-Acid Batteries. World Economic Forum, December 2020.

2019

Poster: Education and Remediation Efforts to Reduce Mercury Use and Contamination in the ASGM sector of Puno and Madre de Dios. Espinosa et al. ICMGP Conference. 2019.

Reporte Nacional de Niveles de Plomo en Sangre y Uso de Barro Vidriado en Población Infantil Vulnerable (National Report of Lead Levels in Blood and Use of Lead-Glazed Pottery in Vulnerable Children). Téllez-Rojo et al. Salud Publica (Public Health Mexico). December 2019. 

Toxic Site Identification Program in Azerbaijan. Abbasov et al. Environmental Management. December 2019.

Turmeric Means “Yellow” in Bengali: Lead Chromate Pigments Added to Turmeric Threaten Public Health Across Bangladesh. Forsyth et al. Environmental Research. December 2019.

Rethinking Aid Allocation: Analysis of Official Development Spending on Modern Pollution Reduction. Swinehart et al. Annals of Global Health. November 2019. 

Improving and Expanding Estimates of the Global Burden of Disease Due to Environmental Health Risk Factors. Shaffer et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. October 2019.

Sources of Blood Lead Exposure in Rural Bangladesh. Forsyth et al. ACS Publications. September 2019.

Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants in Sumgait, Azerbaijan. Sharov et al. Environmental Monitoring Assessment. June 2019.

Assessment of the Prevalence of Lead-Based Paint Exposure Risk in Jakarta, Indonesia. Ericson et al. Science of The Total Environment. February 2019.

A Spoonful of Lead: A 10-Year Look at Spices as a Potential Source of Lead Exposure. Hore et al. J Public Health Manag Pract. January-February 2019.

2018

Blood Lead Levels of Children in Flint, Michigan: 2006-2016. Gomez et al. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2018.

Pollution and Global Health: A Time for Action. Fuller et al. World Hospitals and Health Services. 2018. 

Pollution Prevention and Climate Change Mitigation: Measuring the Health benefits of Comprehensive Interventions. Landrigan et al. Lancet Planetary Health. December 2018.

A Meta-Analysis of Blood Lead Levels in India and the Attributable Burden of Disease. Ericson et al. Environmental International. December 2018.

Prevalence of Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Pregnant Women and Sources of Lead Exposure in Rural Bangladesh: A Case Control Study. Forsyth et al. Environmental Research. October 2018.

Lead Intoxicated Children in Kabwe, Zambia. Bose-O’Reilly et al. Environmental Research. August 2018.

Low-Level Lead Exposure and Mortality in US Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Lanphear et al. The Lancet Planetary Health. April 2018.

Sex-Dependent Effects of Developmental Lead Exposure on the Brain. Singh et al. Frontiers. March 2018.

Pollution and Non-Communicable Disease: Time to End the Neglect. Fuller at el. The Lancet Planetary Health. March 2018.

Lead and the Heart: An Ancient Metal’s Contribution to Modern Disease. Landrigan. The Lancet Planetary Health. April 2018.

Cost Effectiveness of Environmental Lead Risk Mitigation in Low‐ and Middle‐Income Countries. Ericson et al. GeoHealth. February 2018.

Improving Human Health Outcomes with a Low-Cost Intervention to Reduce Exposures from Lead Acid Battery Recycling: Dong Mai, Vietnam. Ericson et al. Environmental Research. February 2018.

2017

A Meta-Analysis of Blood Lead Levels in India and Attributable Burden of Disease. Dey et al. Conference: International Conference of the Public Health Foundation of India and the Pacific Basin Consortium. November 2017.

Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health. The Lancet. October 2017.

Global Burden of Disease of Mercury Used in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining. Steckling et al. Annals of Global Health. March 2017.

Pérdida de Coeficiente Intelectual en Hijos de Alfareros Mexicanos (Intelligence Quotient Loss in Mexican Pottery Artisan’s Children). Estrada-Sánchez et al. Revistamedica. May 2017

Disability Weights for Chronic Mercury Intoxication Resulting from Gold Mining Activities: Results from an Online Pairwise Comparisons Survey. Steckling et al. Environmental Research and Public Health. January 2017.

2016

Estimating the Prevalence of Toxic Waste Sites in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Dowling et al. Annals of Global Health. September 2016.

Risk Factors for Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Metal Mining and Smelting Communities in Armenia: a Cross-Sectional Study. Grigoryan et al. BMC Public Health. September 2016.

Burden of Disease Resulting from Lead Exposure at Toxic Waste Sites In Argentina, Mexico and Uruguay. Caravanos et al. Environmental Health. June 2016.

Protecting Communities by Remediating Polluted Sites Worldwide. Hanrahan et al. Institution of Civil Engineers.  May 2016. 

The Prevalence of Toxic Hotspots in Former Soviet Countries. Sharov et al. Environmental Pollution. April 2016.

Pollution, Health and Development: The Need for a New Paradigm. Landrigan & Fuller. Reviews in Environmental Health. March 2016.

Lead Contamination in Flint–An Abject Failure to Protect Public Health. Bellinger. New England Journal of Medicine. March 2016.

2015

An Assessment of the Potential Presence of Carcinogenic Materials at Non-Military Industrial Sites in Vieques, Puerto Rico. Jack Caravanos. City University of New York. October 2015.

Spatial Associations Between Contaminated Land And Socio Demographics In Ghana. Dowling et al. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. October 2015.

Global Health and Environmental Pollution. Landrigan & Fuller. International Journal of Public Health. July 2015.

Exposición a plomo: una tarea pendiente en México. Téllez-Rojo & Caravanos. Salud Pública de México. March-April 2015.

2014

Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh. Ahmad et al. The Scientific World Journal. 2014.

Environmental Pollution: An Enormous and Invisible Burden on Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Landrigan & Fuller. World Hospitals and Health Services. 2014.

Children’s Health in Latin America: The Influence of Environmental Exposures.” Amalia, et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. December 2014.

Management of Used Lead Acid Battery in China: Secondary Lead Industry Progress, Policies and Problems. Tian et al. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. December 2014.

Notes from the Field: Severe Environmental Contamination and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children—Zambia, 2014. Caravanos et al. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. November 2014.

A Comparison of Burden of Disease from Toxic Waste Sites with Other Recognized Public Health Threats in India, Indonesia and the Philippines. Caravanos et al. Journal of Health Pollution. October 2014.

Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products: A Multifaceted Tool for Protecting Public Health. Hore et al. AJPH. August 2014.

Assessment of Sustainable Collection and Recycling Policy of Lead-Acid Accumulators from the Perspective of System Dynamics Modelling. Blumberga et al. Chemical Engineering Transactions. August 2014.

A Simplified Risk-Ranking System for Prioritizing Toxic Pollution Sites in Low-and Middle-Income Countries. Caravanos et al. Annals Of Global  Health. July-August 2014.

Blood Lead Levels in Mexico and Pediatric Burden of Disease Implications. Caravanos et al. Annals Of Global Health. July-August 2014.

Environmental Pollution and Occupational Health in a Changing World. Landrigan & Fuller. Annals Of Global Health. July-August 2014.

The Pediatric Burden of Disease from Lead Exposure at Toxic Waste Sites in Low and Middle Income Countries. Chatham-Stephens et al. Environmental Research. July 2014.

Examination of Lead Concentrations in New Decorative Enamel Paints in Four Countries with Different Histories of Activity in Lead Paint Regulation. Clark et al. Environmental Research. July 2014.

2013

“Hazardous Waste and Toxic Hotspots.” Fuller. Textbook of Children’s Environmental Health. December 2013.

Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Risks Posed by Mining Operations in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Selected Case Studies. Caravanos et al. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. November 2013.

Economic Costs of Childhood Lead Exposure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Attina & Trasande. Environmental Health Perspectives. September 2013.

Health Hazards of China’s Lead-Acid Battery Industry: A Review of its Market Drivers, Production Processes, and Health Impacts. Van der Kuijp et al. Environmental Health. August 2013.

Assessing Levels of Lead Contamination in Soil and Predicting Pediatric Blood Lead Levels in Tema, Ghana. Aboh et al. Journal of  Health and Pollution. June 2013.

Burden of Disease from Toxic Waste Sites in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in 2010. Chatham-Stephens et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. May 2013.

How to Mitigate Mercury Pollution in Tanzania. Appel & Na-Oy. Journal of Environmental Protection. May 2013.

Artisanal Gold Mining:  A Dangerous Pollution Problem. Riederer & Caravanos. Pure Earth. April 2013.

Approaches to Systematic Assessment of Environmental Exposures Posed at Hazardous Waste Sites in the Developing World: the Toxic Sites Identification Program. Ericson et al. Environ Monit Assess. February 2013.

2012

Trace Element Contamination around the E-waste Recycling Site at Agbogbloshie, Accra City, Ghana. Otsuka et al. Environmental Science. 2012.

Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Risks Posed by Mining Operations in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Selected Case Studies. Caravanos et al. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. December 2012.

The Burden of Disease from Pediatric Lead Exposure at Hazardous Waste Sites in 7 Asian Countries. Caravanos et al. Environmental Research.  September 2012.

2011

​​Outbreak of Fatal Childhood Lead Poisoning Related to Artisanal Gold Mining in Northwestern Nigeria, 2010. Dooyema et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. December 2011.

Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana. Caravanos et al. Journal of Health and Pollution. February 2011. 

2009

Mass Lead Intoxication from Informal Used Lead-Acid Battery Recycling in Dakar, Senegal. Haelfliger et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. October 2009.

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control. Gould. Environmental Health Perspectives. July 2009

2004

Estimating the Global Burden of Disease of Mild Mental Retardation and Cardiovascular Diseases from Environmental Lead Exposure. Fewtrell et al. Environ Res. 2004.

2000

Lead Poisoning in a Historical Perspective. Hernberg. Am J Ind Med. September 2000.

“Cater to the Children”: The Role of the Lead Industry in a Public Health Tragedy, 1900-1955. Markowitz & Rosner. AM J Public Health. January 2000. 

1999

Follow-up Screening of Lead-Poisoned Children Near an Auto Battery Recycling Plant, Haina, Dominican Republic. Kaul et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. November 1999. 

1996

The Basel Convention: Effect on the Asian Secondary Lead Industry. Elmer. Journal of Power Sources. March-April 1996. 

Bone Lead Levels and Delinquent Behavior. Needleman et al. JAMA. February 1996

1990

The Long-Term Effects of Exposure to Low Doses of Lead in Childhood. An 11-Year Follow-up Report. Needleman al.New England Journal of Medicine. January 1990.

Briefs

2023

Addressing the Global Lead Poisoning Crisis to Ensure Thriving Childhoods and Lifelong Health. Silverman Bonnifield. G20 Task Force 6. 2023.

Reports

2023

Exposure to Lead Paint in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Rethink Priorities. 2023.

Rapid Market Screening Program. Pure Earth. September 2023.

2022

Assessment of Lead Impact on Human and India’s Response. NITI Aayog, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). 2022.

Lead as a Major Threat for Human Health and the Environment – An Integrated Approach Strengthening Cooperation Toward Solutions.Report to G7 Ministers on Key Workshop Outcomes. November 2022.

Update on the Global Status of Legal Limits on Lead in Paint. World Health Organization. September 2022.

Electronic Waste Management for Off-grid Solar Solutions in Displacement Settings. GPA Coordination Unit, Norwegian Refugee Council. January 2022.

2021

Global Lead Regulation Profiles. Global Lead Forum. 2021.

Global Lead Exposure Report. Schukraft & Bernard. Rethink Priorities. May 2021.

2020

The Toxic Truth: Children’s Exposure to Lead Pollution Undermines a Generation of Future Potential. UNICEF and Pure Earth (2020).

2020 Update on the Global Status of Legal Limits on Lead in Paint. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint (Lead Paint Alliance). December 2020.

Brief Guide to Analytical Methods for Measuring Lead in Paint, 2nd ed. World Health Organization. July 2020.

2019

Leaded Batteries: Mapping The Toxic Waste Trail. Toxics Link. 2019.

Trade and Recycling of Used Lead Acid Batteries (ULAB) in Nigeria. Recycling and Economic Development Initiative of Nigeria. Alliance for Responsible Battery Recycling. October 2019.

“We Have to be Worried”: The Impact of Lead Contamination on Children’s Rights in Kabwe, Zambia, Human Rights Watch. August 2019.

Pollution Knows No Borders. Pure Earth. Jan 2019

2017

Recycling Used Lead-Acid Batteries: Health Considerations.  World Health Organization. January 2017.

2016

 The Toxics Beneath Our Feet. Pure Earth. 2016.

Baseline Assessment on E-waste Management in Ghana. Sampson Atiemo et al., Sustainable Recycling Industries (SRI). July 2016.

Global Report on the Status of Legal Limits on Lead in Paint. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). May 2016.

2015

The New Top Six Toxic Threats: A Priority List for Remediation. Pure Earth. 2015

The recycling chain for used lead-acid batteries in Ghana.  Oko-Insitut

2014

Top Ten Countries Turning The Corner On Toxic Pollution. Pure Earth. 2014.

2013

The World’s Top 10 Toxic Threats: Cleanup, Progress and Ongoing Challenges. . Pure Earth. 2013

2012

The World’s Top 10 Toxic Pollution Problems by Global Burden of Disease. Pure Earth. 2012

NTP Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead, US Department of Health and Human Services

2011

The World’s Top Ten Sources of Pollution. Pure Earth. 2011.

2010

Top Six Toxic Threats. Pure Earth. 2010.

Childhood lead poisoning, World Health Organization

2009

12 Cases Of Cleanup and Success. Pure Earth. 2009.

2008

The World’s Worst Pollution Problems. Pure Earth. 2008.

2007

Top Ten Most Polluted Places. Pure Earth. 2007.

Fact Sheets

2022

India’s Lead Crisis: A Call to Action. Pure Earth. 2022.

2021

Reducing the Threat of Toxic Pollution to Women and Girls in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Pure Earth. 2021.

Pollution: A Critical Link for Achieving the SDGs. Pure Earth. 2021.

Pollution in the Kitchen. Pure Earth. 2021.

2020

Mainstreaming gender into chemical and waste policy. HEJSupport. 2020.

The Global Burden of Disease from Lead Pollution. Pure Earth and the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution. 2020.

Working Papers

2023

How Much Would Reducing Lead Exposure Improve Children’s Learning in the Developing World? Crawfurd et al. Center for Global Development. July 2023.

2021

Lead and Cardiovascular Mortality: Evidence Supports Lead as an Independent Cardiovascular Risk Factor. Navas-Acien. Environmental Protection Agency. May 2021.

2020

Consequences of a Mobile Future: Creating an Environmentally Conscious Life Cycle for Lead-Acid Batteries. World Economic Forum. December 2020.

2017

Lead and Juvenile Delinquency: New Evidence from Linked Birth, School and Juvenile Detention Records.  Aizer & Janet. The Review of Economics and Statistics. October 2019.

Case Studies

2021

Vital Strategies Reimagines Clinical Care Guidance for Childhood Lead Poisoning in Peru. Vital Strategies. 2021.

2013

Childhood lead exposure associated with the use of kajal, an eye cosmetic from Afghanistan – Albuquerque, New Mexico, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. November 2022.